Welcome Nepal, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal is a federal republic and landlocked country of over 26.4 million people in South Asia. It is bordered by China to the north and India to the south, east and west. It is separated from Bangladesh by a narrow Indian corridor and from Bhutan by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal is located in the Himalayas and is home to eight of the world’s tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Its southern Madhesh region is fertile and humid. The country has an area of an area of 147,181 square kilometres (56,827 sq mi), making it the world’s 93rd largest country by area. It is also the 41st most populous country. Kathmandu is the nation’s capital and largest city.
The first recorded mention of Nepal is found in Vedic Age texts. The era laid the foundations of Hinduism, which is the predominant religion of the Nepalese people. Nepal is also home to Lumbini, the birthplace of Siddharta Gautama, the founder of Buddhism. The country also has minorities of Muslims, Kiratans and Christians. A monarchy throughout its history, the early modern Kingdom of Nepal led by the Shah dynasty was established in the 18th century, after Prithvi Narayan Shah unified many small kingdoms in the region. The aristocratic Rana dynasty administered Nepal’s government as hereditary Prime Ministers until 1951. In 1990, a parliamentary government was permitted by King Birendra. Nepal faced a decade-long Communist Maoist insurgency and mass protests against the authoritarian King Gyanendra in 2005, which led to the abolition of the monarchy in 2008. Its 2nd constituent assembly promulgated a new constitution in 2015.
Nepal has a diverse ancient cultural heritage. The name Nepal is first recorded in texts from the Vedic Age, the era that founded Hinduism, the country’s predominant religion. Nepal was the world’s last Hindu monarchy. Siddharta Gautama, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal. The main minorities are Tibetan Buddhists, Muslims, Kiratans and Christians. The Nepalese are also known as Gurkhas. They have been reputed for their valour in World War I and World War II.